Ministère de l'Intérieur: Police nationale, République française, Louis Joseph Xavier François, Dauphin of France, Units of measurement in France before the French Revolution, annexation of the left bank of the Rhine by France, List of battles of the War of the First Coalition, "History of the French Revolution, from 1789 to 1814", "To What Extent Was Robespierre the Driving Force of the Great Terror?…", The French Revolution: From Enlightenment to Tyranny by Ian Davidson, p. xiv, Lazare Carnot, republican patriot, by Huntley Dupre, p. 185-187, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Establishment of a secular and democratic republic that became increasingly authoritarian and militaristic, August 8: The royal treasury is declared empty, and the. April 4: Following the French model, the new Helvetic Republic declares itself a secular republic. August 25: Soldiers of the Convention capture Marseille. September 20: The French army under Generals, September 22: The Convention proclaims the abolition of royalty and the, October 27: The French army under Dumouriez invades the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium). April 2: Trial of Danton before the Revolutionary Tribunal. March 3: Armed royalist uprising against the Convention begins in. December 1: Bonaparte rejects a constitution proposed by Sieyès. The nobility was revived in 1805 with limited rights as a titled elite class from the First Empire to the fall of the July Monarchy in 1848, when all privileges were permanently abolished. On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI was marched to the guillotine. February 22: In a speech at the Cordeliers Club. Backed by the newly approved Constitution of 1793, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety began conscripting French soldiers and implementing laws to stabilize the economy. What main reason is suggested for wanting these people to return? June 17: The Council of Five Hundred and Council of the Ancients annul the election of. Site giving background and information about the French Revolution. May 4: Massacre of twenty-five Jacobins imprisoned in Lyon. According to the source, people lined the streets – how does the source describe their behaviour? Director Rewbell gives a speech denouncing the extremism of the left. Egalité! August 23: Bonaparte has had no news from France in six months. September 20: Last session of Assembly votes a new law permitting civil marriage and divorce. May 10: Fifth and last attempt by Bonaparte to capture Saint-Jean-d'Acre. July 24: Bonaparte and his army enter Cairo. In October 1789, King Louis and his family were moved from Versailles (the Royal palace) to Paris. The Republic of France was declared, and soon the King was put on trial. January 3: Priests are ordered to take an oath to the Nation within twenty-four hours. June 21–22: The King is recognized at Varennes. June 25: Louis XVI returns to Paris. Look at Source 2. May 22: The nobility renounces its special tax privileges. October 5 - A large group of women (and men) march from Paris to Versailles to demand lower bread prices. How pleased were people with the King’s promises? November 12: The Convention orders the suspension of meetings of the Jacobin Club. March 9: The Parliament of German states, meeting in Rastadt, accepts the. September 27: The Assembly declares that all men living in France, regardless of color, are free, but preserves slavery in French colonies. July 8: French forces under Generals Jourdan and. June 19: The Assembly abolishes the titles, orders, and other privileges of the hereditary nobility. The Coalition army of Austrian and Prussian soldiers, and of French, August 21: First summary judgement by the Revolutionary Tribunal and execution by the guillotine of a royalist, Louis Collenot d'Angremont (, August 22: The Paris Commune orders that persons henceforth be addressed as, September 2–7: Following the news of surrender of Verdun, the Commune orders. December 14: French army under Championnet recaptures Rome. Looking at primary source material from 1789, including a London newspaper report, together with both official and personal letters sent from Paris, you will be asked to assess and investigate the reaction. December 3: The King writes a secret letter to, December 3: Louis XVI's brothers, (the counts of Provence and Artois) refuse to return to France, citing "the moral and physical captivity in which the King is being held. July 27: The Convention institutes death penalty for those who hoard scarce goods. April 4: The Convention decrees that anyone who insults the justice system is excluded from speaking, barring Danton from defending himself. April 24: Bonaparte fails a third time to capture Saint-Jean-d'Acre. June 20: On the orders of Louis XVI, the meeting hall of the Third Estate is closed and locked. March 19: The Convention decrees the death penalty for any participant in the uprising in the Vendée. October 1: First session of the new national, October 16: Riots against the revolutionary commune, or city government, in. June 28: Lafayette speaks to the Assembly, denouncing the actions of the Jacobins and other radical groups in the Assembly. The Republic of France was declared, and soon the King was put on trial. v3.0, except where otherwise stated, Locating privilege and inequality in pre-Revolutionary France, Friends of The National September 5: The French legislature requires all French men between twenty and twenty-five to perform military service. The following is a timeline of the French Revolution. Why does the ambassador have little to report? May 24: At the demand of the Girondins, the Convention orders the arrest of the ultra-revolutionary. December 27: Thirty-nine deputies of the Assembly, who are also clergymen, take an oath of allegiance to the government. April 4: The Assembly granted equal rights to free people of color in Haiti. April 5: Danton and Desmoulins are convicted and guillotined the same day. Across France and the rest of Europe the consequences of the Revolution were huge. August 16: The Assembly calls for the re-establishment of discipline in the army. August 1: The Convention declares a scorched earth policy against all departments rebelling against its authority. December 8: Seventy-three surviving Girondin deputies are given seats again in the Convention. August 6: A French fleet and expeditionary force sails for Ireland to aid the Irish rebels, though the rebellion is already defeated. The royalist Pichegru is chosen president of the Council of Five Hundred, and another royalist, May 20: A drawing of lots removes the moderate republican, June 14: Bonaparte installs a new government in, June 24: The Director Paul Barras contacts General Hoche, seeking support for a, June 27: The royalist majority in the Councils repeals the law of October 25, 1795, which added punishments against refractory priests and. It actually lasted for another six years, with far more violent and momentous events taking place in the years after 1789. July 15: National Assembly declares the king inviolable, and cannot be put on trial. October 9: Lyon is recaptured by the army of the Convention. Image : La Prise de la Bastille – Jean Pierre Hovell 1789, Sources 1-3 : The London Gazette – ZJ 1/85, Sources 4-6 : Extracts from a confidential report from the British Ambassador, 30th July 1789 FO 27/32. July 25: The Assembly authorizes the Paris sections, local assemblies in each neighborhood, many controlled by the Jacobins and Cordeliers, to meet in permanent sessions. I mean, look at Article 6 of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen: “Law is the expression of the general will. She is guillotined after her trial. June 17: Suicide of six deputies condemned to death for participation in the May 20–22 uprising. June 17: On the proposal of Sieyés, the deputies of the Third Estate declare themselves the. 205 of the 216 deputies running are defeated, and many are replaced by royalists. February 1: French citizens are required to have a passport to travel in the interior of the country. v3.0. During the Convention’s debate on the fate of the king, Saint-Just argued that to provide the king with a trial presupposed the possibility of his innocence, which in turn put into question the Revolution of August 10th that had established the legitimacy of the Republic and the authority of the National Convention. Replacing the power of the King, a ‘legislative assembly’ governed from October 1791 to September 1792, and was then replaced by the ‘National Convention’. April 18: Results of partial elections for the legislature. Ghachem, Malick W. The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution. April 20: The Assembly declares war on the, April 30: The government issues three hundred million. December 31: Armistice on the Rhine halting combat between the French and Austrian armies. A third, Barras, is talked into resigning by Talleyrand. July 17: The army of Hoche arrives within three, July 20: Barras produces evidence that General Pichegru was in secret correspondence with, July 25: The Councils vote a law forbidding political clubs, including the republican. November 2: The Assembly votes to place property of the Church at the disposition of the Nation. In the six weeks that followed some 1,400 people who were considered potential enemies to the Republic were executed in Paris. January 26: Proclamation of a new republic in Naples, named, February 3: Conflict between Generals Championnet and. April 15: A report to the Convention by Saint-Just calls from greater centralization of the police under the control of the Committee for Public Safety. October 11: French fleet and expeditionary force defeated off coast of Ireland; six of eight warships captured. October 5: Spain, now allied with France, declares war on Britain. January 5: The French legislature passes a law authorizing a loan of eighty million francs to prepare an invasion of England. May 20: The clergy renounces its special tax privileges, and accepts the principle of fiscal equality. September 14: Council of Five Hundred refuses to declare a state of national emergency. King Louis XVI was executed on January 21 1793. June 11: Louis XVI vetoes the laws on the deportation of priests and the formation of a new army outside Paris. August 23: The Assembly proclaims freedom of religious opinions. The split dates to the summer of 1789, when members of the French National Assembly met to begin drafting a constitution. March 1–2: French armies under Jourdan and. February 17: An amnesty granted to former Vendéen rebels, restoring freedom of religion. October 6 - The Jacobin Club is formed. January 25: The Directory is given the provisional power to name the administrators of cities. (August 23, 1799), Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès proposed the coup d'état, but was left out of the final government, The Director Paul Barras was persuaded not to oppose Bonaparte's coup d'état, Lucien Bonaparte, 24 years old, was elected President of the Council of Five Hundred, and aided Bonaparte's coup d'état, Joseph Fouché, Minister of Police, assured that the police would not interfere in Bonaparte's seizure of power, Bonaparte confronts the deputies of the Council of Five Hundred (November 10, 1799), Bonaparte as First Consul (1804), by Antoine Gros, Musée de la Légion d'honneur, Paris, Significant civil and political events by year, 1788 – The royal treasury is empty; Prelude to the Revolution, 1789 – The Revolution Begins; the Estates-General and the Constituent Assembly, July 14, 1789 – The Siege and Surrender of the Bastille, August 27, 1789 – Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, October 6, 1789 – Women's March on Versailles, 1791 – The unsuccessful flight of the Royal Family from Paris, June 20–21, 1791 – The Royal Family flees Paris, 1792 – War and the overthrow of the monarchy, August 10, 1792 – Storming of the Tuileries; Downfall of the King, September 2–7, 1792 – Massacres in Paris prisons, September 20, 1792 – French victory at Valmy; Debut of the Convention, December 10, 1792-January 21, 1793 – Trial and Execution of Louis XVI, 1793 – France at war against Europe; The Jacobins seize power; The Terror begins, April 6–May 30, 1793 - Committee on Public Safety takes control of government, May 31-June 2, 1793 – The Jacobin Coup d'État, July 13, 1793 – Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday, September 17, 1793 – The Reign of Terror begins, October 16, 1793 – The execution of Marie-Antoinette, 1794 – The fury of the Terror, the Cult of the Supreme Being, and the Downfall of Robespierre, March 30, 1794 – The arrest and trial of Danton and Desmoulins, June 8, 1794 – Festival of the Supreme Being; Acceleration of the Terror, July 26–28, 1794 – Arrest and execution of Robespierre; End of the Terror, 1795 – The Directory Replaces the Convention, May 20–24, 1795 – Last Paris uprising by the Jacobins and, June 25-July 27, 1795 – Renewed uprisings in the Vendée and a royalist invasion of Brittany, August 22-September 23, 1795 – The new Constitution is approved: the Directory takes power, October 5, 1795 – "A whiff of grapeshot": General Bonaparte suppresses a royalist rebellion in Paris, 1796 – Napoleon's campaign in Italy; Defeat of the royalists in the Vendée; a failed uprising in Paris, 1797 – Bonaparte chases the Austrians from Italy; a republican coup d'état against the royalists in Paris, September 4, 1797 – A republican coup d'état against the royalists, 1798 – New republics in Switzerland and Italy; an election annulled; Bonaparte invades Egypt, 1799 – France at War in Italy and Germany; Bonaparte returns from Egypt; the Consulate seizes power; End of the Revolution, Conflicts between the Directory and the Legislature (June 1799), Bonaparte returns to France (October 9, 1799). August 7: Publication of "A plot uncovered to lull the people to sleep" by. What reasons does the ambassador suggest for the quick and easy take over of the Bastille? April 1: Bonaparte fails again to take Saint-Jean-d'Acre. June 29: Dispute within the Committee of Public Safety. May 22: Third day of uprising in Paris. Test your knowledge on all of The French Revolution (1789–1799). October 10: The Assembly names Lafayette commander of the regular army in and around Paris. May 2: Presentation to the King of the Deputies of the Estates-General at Versailles. They occupy. February 24: Constitutional bishops, who have taken an oath to the State, replace the former Church hierarchy. June 8: The Assembly orders the raising of an army of twenty thousand volunteers to be camped outside Paris. December 26: The daughter of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. Enraged citizens overthrew the Girondin-led National Convention, and the Jacobins, led by Maximilien Robespierre, took control. Examine Mr. Jenkinson’s description of the storming of the Bastille – is there any reason to doubt his claims? January 18: Marat publishes a fierce attack on finance minister Necker. Why, according to this source, did the King ‘recant all his former words’ and agree to the people’s demands? August 29: Championnet, prominent among the Jacobin generals, is named new commander of the Army of Italy. June 10: The Convention decriminalizes the. January 13: Arrest of Fabre d'Églantine for alleged diversion of state funds. Antoine-Jean Gros, Louvre Museum, Pope Pius VI was moved to France as a prisoner of the Directory (April 10, 1799), General André Masséna forced the Russians out of Switzerland (September 26, 1799), General Jourdan, leader of the Jacobins in the army, The royalist general Louis de Frotté commanded a new rebellion against Paris in the west of France, The French army under General Masséna wins a decisive victory over the Austrians and Russians at the Second Battle of Zürich (September 24–25, 1799), The British Admiral Sir Sidney Smith sends Bonaparte a packet of French newspapers, letting him know of events in Paris. The French Revolution December 4: Deputies sent by Brussels assembly to the National Convention express gratitude of the Belgian people and request that France officially recognise the independence of Belgium. March 27: The philosopher and mathematician. Bonaparte then addresses the Council of Five Hundred, meeting in the. June 12: Deputies who supported the May 20–22 uprising are put on trial. May 7: A report to the Council of Five Hundred declares that the French elections were irregular, and recommends exclusion of candidates of the far left. The French Revolution didn’t just take place in 1789. November 15–17: Decisive victory of Bonaparte over the Austrians at the, December 4: Abrogation of the harshest parts of the October 25, 1795 laws punishing, January 7: A new Austrian army commanded by General, January 14: Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at the, February 2: Surrender of last Austrian forces in Italy, in, February 14: Defeat of the Spanish fleet, ally of the French, at the, February 20: Beginning of the trial of Babeuf and his leading followers at the High Court of Justice in. First government. November 1: Bonaparte meets with Sieyès; the two men dislike each other, but agree to a parliamentary coup d'état to replace the Directory. What evidence is there that the population of Paris were worried? The National Convention responded by declaring war on England on February 1st. August 27: General Humbert defeats a British force at the, September 2: Suppression of a royalist revolt in the south of the. June 2: The sans-culottes and soldiers of the Paris Commune, led by. Clergymen lose their special status, and are required to take an. The British admiral, August 29: Pope Pius VI dies, a French prisoner, in. June 18–19: Two royalist members of the Directory, Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai and La Révellière-Lépeaux, are forced to resign, under threat of being brought to trial by the Councils. January 19: French army of Pichegru captures, February 5: The semi-official government newspaper, February 8: Removal of the remains of Marat and three other extreme Jacobins from the, February 14; Several former Jacobin leaders in Lyon, who conducted the Terror there, are assassinated, beginning of the so-called. July 15: The Assembly votes to send regular army units, whose officers largely support Lafayette, far outside the city. June 21: The Assembly bans gatherings of armed citizens within the city limits. Étienne Charles de Brienne, minister of finance 1787-88, Jacques Necker, minister of finance 1788-90, The King opens the meeting of the Estates-General (May 5, 1789), Cartoon showing the Third Estate carrying the weight of the clergy and the nobility (1789), The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789), by Couder, German soldiers of the King's guard skirmish with the Gardes-Française in Paris (July 12, 1789), Parade of the heads of the governor of the Bastille and the Provost of Paris merchants (July 14, 1789), Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Meeting of the National Assembly (February 4, 1790), The King and his family are recognized and arrested at Varennes (June 21, 1791), The king is forced to wear a Phrygian cap and drink a toast to the Nation (June 20, 1792), Sans-Culottes take possession of the Tuileries Palace and massacre the Swiss Guards (August 10, 1792), Massacre of prisoners in Paris prisons (September 2–7, 1792), French victory over the Prussians at the Battle of Valmy (September 29, 1792), The execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793), The Revolutionary Tribunal at work in 1793, Stage of the Festival of the Supreme Being (June 8, 1794), The poet André Chenier and other victims of the Terror await judgement at the Conciergerie (July 25, 1794), French victory at the Battle of Fleurus (June 26, 1794), The Convention rises against Robespierre (July 27, 1794), The execution of Robespierre (July 28, 1794), Paul Barras in the ceremonial dress of a French Director, General Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Lodi (May 10, 1796), The capture of François de Charette, the royalist leader in the Vendée (February 23, 1796), Failed uprising at the Grenelle military camp by Montagnards and followers of Babeuf (9 September 1796), General Bonaparte leads his soldiers across a bridge at the Battle of Arcole (November 15–17, 1796), Bonaparte defeats Austrians at the Battle of Rivoli (January 14, 1797 ). This lesson can form part of studies for Scheme of Work Unit 10: France 1789-94 – ‘Why was there a revolution?’ It is useful specifically for part four of the unit that requires pupils to decide: ‘Why was the Bastille attacked and destroyed?’, although it can of course be used for any investigation into the French Revolution. This is an extract from the London Gazette from Saturday 18 July to Tuesday 21 July, 1789. August 1: The Convention adopts the principles of the, August 1: On order by decree of the Convention, a mob profanes the tombs of the Kings of France at the, August 2: Marie-Antoinette is transferred from the Temple to the, August 8: The Convention sends an army led by. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. sfn error: no target: CITEREFTulard,_Fayard,_Fierro1996 (, Richard T. Bienvenu (1968) The Ninth of Thermidor, p. 223. What is wrong with the account of the storming of the Bastille? Similar committees and local militias are formed in, July 17: The King visits Paris, where he is welcomed at the, July 21-August 1: Riots and peasant revolts in. March 5: The Directory approves Bonaparte's plan to invade Egypt. "The Beginning of the French Revolution". The Convention orders the army to occupy the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. October 12: Louis XVI secretly writes to king, October 19: The National Assembly holds its first meeting in Paris, in the chapel of the archbishop's residence next to. December 28: The Assembly votes to summon a mass army of volunteers to defend the borders of France. June 13–14: Nine deputies from the clergy decide to join the meeting of the Third Estate. The clergy and nobles are welcomed with formal ceremonies and processions, the Third Estate is not. Take a look at this clip from the BBC Learning Zone. November 29: Priests are again ordered to take an oath to the government, or to be considered suspects. However, here we examine the British reaction to the events in France during this famous year – were the British government extremely worried or did they see it as merely a few minor disturbances? General Pichegru, leader of the royalist party, The French Army under General Berthier enters Rome (February 10, 1798), General Bonaparte at the Battle of the Pyramids (July 21, 1798), The French fleet is defeated by Admiral Nelson at the Battle of the Nile (August 1, 1798), General Bonaparte visits a plague hospital in Jaffa (March 31, 1799). Mignet, François, Member of the Institute of France, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 07:04. June 19: Another reversal in Italy: the French garrison of Naples surrenders. In all, 106 Robespierrists are guillotined. April 10: Convention orders the disarmament of Jacobins who were involved in the Terror. How many members of the royal family have fled? November 20: Discovery in the king's apartment in the Tuileries Palace of the, November 27: The Convention decrees the attachment of. The women demand that the King and his family accompany them back to Paris, and the King agrees. August 5: Inmates of Paris prisons arrested under the Law of Suspects are released. July 14: Irish uprising suppressed by the British army. They are presented by Pétion, the mayor of Paris. July 16: Conflict within the Directory between Barthélemy and Carnot, favorable to the monarchists, and the three pro-republican directors, Barras, La Révellière-Lépeaux, and Rewbell. In September 1792 a new National Convention declared France a republic and abolished the monarchy. October 21: The Assembly declares a state of martial law to prevent future uprisings. He is denounced by, July 11: As the Austrian army advances slowly toward Paris, the Assembly declares that the Nation is in danger (. June 28: General Hoche sends 15,000 soldiers from the Rhine to Brest via Paris, on the pretext of planning an invasion of Ireland. How have the recent events affected newspapers? The motion is opposed by Robespierre, who declares "Louis must die so that the nation may live." November 12: The astronomer and former mayor of Paris. December 21: French army attacks Naples and forces King of Naples to take sanctuary on the flagship of Admiral Nelson. At the same time, he orders reliable military units, largely composed of Swiss and German mercenaries, to Paris. March 24: Hébert and leaders of the Cordeliers are condemned to death and guillotined. January 15: The Convention declares Louis XVI guilty of conspiracy against public liberty by a vote of 707 to zero. September 19: Election of a new municipal assembly in Paris, with three hundred members elected by districts. Through the use of primary source evidence from a contemporary newspaper, together with both official and private correspondence from the time, pupils are asked to decide how seriously the British government took the events of 1789 in 1789. September 18: Convention re-establishes revolutionary government in Bordeaux. March 15: Robespierre tells the Convention that "All the factions must perish from the same blow.". Perfect prep for The French Revolution (1789–1799) quizzes and tests you might have in school. August 25: Brienne resigns as Minister of Finance, and is replaced by the Swiss banker. April 23: The Convention names a commission of eight members to revise the Constitution. 748 émigrés are executed by firing squad. May 19: An English fleet lands soldiers at. How were people behaving? July 23: The Pope writes a secret letter to Louis XVI, promising to condemn the Assembly's abolition of the special status of the French clergy. He urges "indulgence" toward opponents and "national reconciliation". October 6: A French-Dutch army under General. November 16: Austria and England agree to cooperate to force France back to its 1789 boundaries. After a few minutes, Tallien interrupted him and began the attack. November 11–22: Bonaparte and the two other Provisional Consuls form a new government. February 22: In the Convention, the deputy. Why were the people outside the Bastille so outraged when the Governor gave the order to fire on them? Estate deputies from Paris, after being absent since october 11: French elections result in report... March 2: the legislature authorizes French warships to capture U.S. ships, in Rome proclaims. Supported the may 20–22 uprising are tried by a vote of 149 to 137 the. Had called a meeting of the Revolution François de Neufchâteau, Minister of the deputies the... Their behaviour the Girondin-led National Convention responded by declaring war on Britain to name administrators... 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