Food insecurity is a major challenge: 35% of children are moderately underweight and 14% are severely underweight; 51% of children suffer from moderate stunting and 28% suffer from severe stunting. The current government plan to meet that objective is to attract foreign investors to develop lands. For millions of poor people in East and Southern Africa, bamboo has huge potential to alleviate poverty, protect the environment and help achieve the SDGs. The post-1991 period is also marked with expansion of the development programmes [11]. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, MaddaWalabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia, You can also search for this author in Department of Agricultural Extension; 2000. Since 1980, IFAD has invested US$751.6 million in 20 programmes and projects in Ethiopia, with an overall cost of US$2,157.6 million and benefiting more than 11 million households. Ethiopia: Rural Development Policies, Trends, Changes & Continuities: Editor: Demessie Fantaye: Contributors: Kassahun Berhanu, Addis Ababa University. It has over 905,831 registered refugees (as of August 2018), most of them from Eritrea, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan. PDF | On Jan 1, 2004, MULAT DEMEKE and others published Agricultural Development in Ethiopia: Are There alternatives to Food Aid? 10.3 Land Policy. Agricultural development in the rural areas of Ethiopia can facilitate greater national food security and allow for an increase in agricultural exports. Lemma T, Beyene F. Assessment of effectiveness of extension program in Haraghe highlands: the case of maize extension package a research project. Industrial Policy in Ethiopia: An Introduction2 More than fifteen years into a period of sustained and rapid economic growth, Ethiopia has continued to attract international attention for its achievements and for pursuing a home-grown development strategy, with an active industrial policy at its center.3 Some have been sceptical The major factors which make this model highly relevant to Ethiopian agriculture are: the fact that Ethiopia is unable to make widespread use of existing technological backlog due to, mainly, the high costs of generation and diffusion of new techniques of production; the possibility that the improvement approach involves cost-effective techniques of production and capital formation as it is based upon the use of the relatively abundant and that it could delay the operations of the law of diminishing returns as land is saved through labour intensification; and the fact that soil conservation programmes need special attention as the resource base of the agricultural sector is being depleted at an alarming rate due to the fact that the soil erosion and desertification process continue almost unabated [17, 18]. The conservation model of agricultural development, according to Ruttan [14], “evolved from advances in crop and livestock husbandry associated with the English agricultural revolution and the notions of soil exhaustion suggested by the early German chemists and soil scientists. By African, standard rural development programme has long history in Ethiopia. Keywords: Extension, challenge, Role, Agriculture, Ethiopia. A new investment programme is planned to support Sahelian governments through a partnership between the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and IFAD in order to boost climate finance for these rural populations. Diriba Welteji. Agriculture is the mainstay of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product. Google Scholar. Ethiopia, the agricultural sector and rural development will necessarily form the core of such policy. The Ministry appeals to all stakeholders to work together in Agriculture sector as it is the Agriculture is the backbone of the Ethiopian economy. Agricultural extension in Ethiopia. Ruttan VW, Hayami Y. The land tilled by the Ethiopian small-scale farmer accounts for 95% of the total area under agricultural use, and these farmers are responsible for more than 90% of the total agricultural output [3]. Browse the Member States interactive platform. The reviewer gave due attention for environmental and sociocultural considerations. University of the Free State; 2010. The post-1991 period is also marked with the most prominent and enduring economy-wide strategies as Agricultural-Led Industrialization (ADLI), the Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP), Participatory and Accelerated Sustainable Development to Eradicate poverty (PASDEP) and successive growth and transformation plans (GTP I and II). Agricultural development policies of Ethiopia since 1957. What were the rural development models implemented so far in the country? However, due to the commitment of heads of states in Maputo in 2003 to allocate 10% of their budget to agriculture and a recovery of attention to agriculture, Ethiopia is one of the eight countries to meet the target allocating 15% of the budget over the decade of 2003/2004–2012/2013 [1]. Besides, the ever-growing population pressure over land may not allow the average size of the operational holding to expand in the highlands where more than 80% of crop production takes place. Bure C. The package extension approach and small holders, farmers arm productivity in high potential areas of Ethiopia: the case of Shashemene area. In the economic sphere, markets were the driving forces in resource allocation. However, the cost of modern technologies is so prohibitive that few farmers in limited areas of the country are so far reached. The country has experienced strong economic growth in recent years, and substantial progress has also been made in social and human development over the last decade. Diffusion typically takes a number of years, seldom reaches a level of 100% of the potential adopters population and mostly follows some sort of S-shaped curve in time. Ethiopian economy in the 1980s and framework for accelerated growth. Under the Imperial Era, development policies favoured industrial development, neglecting the agricultural sector and worked mainly with the better-off and commercial farmers in and around major project areas. However, there are few remaining areas in Ethiopia today where development along the lines of the frontier model would represent an efficient source of growth. I identified and developed important outlines, validated and designed the arguments, conceived both theoretical and empirical data and editions of the final manuscript. Spielman DJ, Kelemwork D, Alemu D. Seed, fertilizer, and agricultural extension in Ethiopia. Berhanu K, Poulton C. The political economy of agricultural extension policy in Ethiopia: economic growth and political control. The sector is dominated by small-scale farmers who practice rain-fed mixed farming by employing traditional technology, adopting a low-input and low-output production system. Overall, GDP increased on average by 4% per year. It has been stagnant due to poor performance as a result of factors such as low resource utilization; low-tech farming techniques (e.g. PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to During the imperial regime, emphasis was placed on raising foreign exchange earnings by cash crops and the establishment of large-scale commercial farms and neglected cereal production from subsistence farmers which accounted more than 80% of the cultivated area. In Ethiopia, IFAD supports rural people in raising their incomes and improving food security, as well as increasing their contribution to the country’s economic development. Agricultural development in the third world. World Bank. Apparently, some farmers choose to be innovators (first users), while others prefer to be early adopters, late adopters or non-adopters [13]. Ethiopian agriculture has been suffering from various external and internal problems. Agriculture Policy will act as a guiding principle to all players as we move together in achieving the MGDS and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the short, medium and long term. The overriding objective of the government was given as attaining fast broad based economic development. Following Ruttan [14], and Hayami and Ruttan [15], the literature on agricultural development can be characterized according to the following models: the frontier; the urban industrial impact; the diffusion; the high pay-off; the induced innovation; and the conservation. Compared to other sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia has an admirable record of supporting agriculture; the continued state-led policies to boost agricultural production, but understanding of the complex issues involved, evidence-based analysis and policy recommendations, and continuous debate on the pros and cons of alternatives options are required. During the 1974–1991 periods, however, the political environment favoured collective and state farms at the expense of individual farmers. Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Rural Development policy of Ethiopia with particular emphasis on: Market-led agricultural development strategy A term paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course GaDS 503 Development Perspectives and Political theories. As a result, the government of Ethiopia has identified two of its crucial areas, which are increasing the productivity of small hold farms and expanding the large scale commercial farms. It was indicated that there were significant gaps in access, utilization and coverage due to wrong policy priority, institutional and technological variables. They help them gain access to natural resources, technology, finance, institutional capacity and markets. Addis Ababa: FSS; 2008. p. 129–51. Center for African Development Policy Research 8-2007 Agricultural Research and Development in Ethiopia Efrem Bechere Texas Tech University ... impact on agricultural development in Ethiopia and discuss some challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed. The essence of this model is explained by the evolution of a sequence of increasingly complex land- and labour-intensive cropping systems, the production and use of organic manures, and labour-intensive capital formation in the form of drainage, irrigation and other physical facilities to more effectively utilize land and water resources [14]. 1. development of agri culture in Ethiopia f ollowing the 1975 land reform, which resulted in insecurity of individual land tenure, low producti vities, poorly str uctured market Cookies policy. It was reinforced by the application to land of the concept, developed in the English classical school of economics, of diminishing returns to labour and capital”. Tenure security is vital for a successful agricultural development, especially in a country like Ethiopia where 85% … Distorted macroeconomic policies, political unrest and massive villagization and settlement programmes undermined the contribution that the rural development policies could have made. Knowledge and awareness about the relative importance of each package component to overall yield give farmers room for flexibility in stepwise adoption of the technology, according to their conditions and resources. Alemaya Agricultural University; 1986. The possible questions of this review are: Were the rural development policy packages of the country accessible to different segments of society? This is putting great pressure on land resources, worsening environmental degradation and raising the risk of food shortages. Projects Includes planned, ongoing and closed projects. Gendo Gembela Tsire is a women’s group in Chencha district, Ethiopia who are demonstrating the process of making kocho (to make traditional flatbread) and bula (a flour blend prepared as a porridge) from the enset crop. wooden plough by oxen and sickles); over-reliance on fertilizers and underutilized techniques for soil and water conservation; inappropriate agrarian policy; inappropriate land tenure policy; ecological degradation of potential arable lands; and increases in the unemployment rate due to increases in the population [12]. 67. MOFED. Development Strategy and Governance Division, International Food Policy Research Institute—Ethiopia Strategy Support Program II, Ethiopia; 2011. The importance of the frontier model in Ethiopia is reduced mainly by limitations in physical availability of land in the temperate highlands. Dev Policy Rev. The farmer can farm it only as long as he/she stays on the farm. The importance of this point in poor countries such as Ethiopia is obvious. However, the large-scale adoption of this model has been constrained by factors such as: the inability of the public and private sector research institutions to produce new and location-specific technical knowledge; the inability of the industrial sector to develop and produce new technical inputs; the weakness of the extension facilities and related institutions to diffuse the new techniques; the inadequacy of the infrastructure to facilitate the diffusion of the new inputs; the inability of peasant farmers to acquire new knowledge and use new inputs effectively; and lack of complementary inputs such as irrigation facilities which are needed to make fertilizers and modern varieties more effective [5]. Ethiop J Econ. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0208-y, visalatchi.irudhayanathan@springernature.com. Extension science, information systems in agricultural development. Cahiers d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, vol. During the period 1950–1974, the political arena was characterized by absolute monarchism. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. The strength of this model emanates primarily from the fact that “the inputs used in this conservation system of farming (the plant nutrients, animal power, land improvements, physical capital and agricultural labour force) were largely produced or supplied by the agricultural sector itself” [14]. Many rural areas haven’t seen normal rains in years, leaving the population extremely vulnerable to another crisis. In what follows, we will review only those models which are more relevant to the conditions of Ethiopian agriculture. In the Chencha region of southern Ethiopia, erosion continues to be a pressing concern for the Gamo people, one of the main indigenous tribes of Ethiopia. The southward movement of population throughout most of Ethiopian history demonstrates the importance of the frontier model in that country. However, it is possible that government policies and institutions are contributing factors, as the World Bank noted in its recent country report on Ethiopia [5, 16]. The ranges in climate variability by season and over time framed a sophisticated set of crops, agricultural practices, and local political ecologies. However, the expected level was not achieved. Despite the fact that many areas of the economy have made progress, the livelihoods of small-scale farmers are still constrained by many impeding factors. According to Roling [4], rural development policies and programmes are usually developed to suit the condition of progressive farmers. The First Five-Year Development Plan placed emphasis on raising foreign exchange earnings by improving coffee cultivation, accounting for over 70% of foreign exchange earnings. The government extension programme lists these as: areas of adequate rainfall; areas of moisture stress; and pastoral areas. The PIF provides a strategic framework for the prioritization and planning of investments that will drive Ethiopia’s agricultural growth and development. Moreover, concerns shifted by large towards increasing productivity of smallholders to attain food self-sufficiency at national level through research-generated information and technologies, increasing the supply of industrial and export crops and ensuring the rehabilitation and conservation of natural resource base. In: Eicher C, Staaz JM, editors. Ruttan VW. The country loses about 2 billion tons of fertile soils annually to land degradation, and the siltation of water bodies is already a major threat to irrigation development. Welteji, D. A critical review of rural development policy of Ethiopia: access, utilization and coverage. The data sets used will be available from the author up on request. On average, crop production makes up 60% of the sector’s outputs, whereas livestock accounts for 27% and other areas contribute 13% of the total agricultural value added. The current Ethiopian agriculture policy encourages smallholding farmers and investors to strongly engage in agricultural development. Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation, Addis Ababa; 2004. Encouraging agricultural growth is therefore an important aspect of agricultural policy in the developing world. In Ethiopia land belongs to the government. The frontier model or the resource exploitation model involves an approach to agricultural growth through the expansion of the area cultivated or grazed. Agricultural Development Policy in Ethiopia A BaselIne Study in Fedis Awraja Fantu Cheru Bergen, September 1992. The IFAD country programme has two main objectives: PLANNED Under design after concept note approval, APPROVED Approved by the Executive Board or IFAD President. Agricultural productivity is being hampered by land degradation, poor water management, low technology usage and an underdeveloped marketing system, among other factors. In 1984 the founding congress of the Workers' Party of Ethiopia (WPE) emphasized the need for a coordinated strategy based on socialist principles to accelerate agricultural development. Report No. By using this website, you agree to our Paper presented at the national workshop on food strategies for Ethiopia. Includes planned, ongoing and closed projects, Type: Country Strategic Opportunities Programme, Approved by the Executive Board or IFAD President, Rural Financial Intermediation Programme III, Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme II, Pastoral Community Development Project III, Rural Financial Intermediation Programme II, Pastoral Community Development Project II, Community-based Integrated Natural Resources Management Project, Participatory Small-scale Irrigation Development Programme, Agricultural Marketing Improvement Programme, Agricultural Research and Training Project, Informal Seed Component of the Seed Systems Development Project, Southern Region Cooperatives Development and Credit Project, Rehabilitation Programme for Drought Affected Areas, Second Agricultural Minimum Package Project. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. Farmers traditionally classify them as dega (cool), woina dega (temperate) and qolla (low land; warm climate). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press; 1984. By African, standard rural development programme has long history in Ethiopia. Continued public engagement in input markets and extension services, and participation of private investment in providing goods and services for smallholders in a potentially efficient manner should be encouraged. Ethiopia’s economy and the role of the agriculture sector 2. Distorted macroeconomic policies, political unrest and massive villagization and settlement programmes undermined the contribution that the rural development policies could have made. Agricultural productivity is being hampered by land degradation, poor water management, low technology usage and an underdeveloped marketing system, among other factors. Flagship initiatives and accomplishments within Ethiopian agriculture 1 Discover how the Resilient Food Systems programme is enhancing long-term sustainability and resilience for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. It has also enjoyed a considerable attention by the government. Agriculture is the mainstay of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product. Overall assessment of the access, utilization and coverage of the technological packages of rural development in the country was not realized although there were significant attentions across regimes. Ethiopia is also one of the largest refugee-hosting countries in the world. This particular sector determines the growth of all other sectors and consequently the whole national economy. Water is a vital ingredient for growing many crops around the globe, but while the world has enough water, it’s often not in the right places, at the right time. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. IFAD’s loans support programmes that provide smallholder farmers, pastoralists and agro-pastoralists with the assets needed to enhance their productivity and resilience. 2014;32(S2):s197–213. The project supports improved practice and policy in the agriculture sector through analyses, reviews and evaluations, and technical support to government partners, implementers of agriculture projects, and the private sector. Ethiopian smallholder farmers produce 90 to 95 per cent of the country’s agricultural output. community-driven development among pastoral groups; knowledge exchange through partnerships with the private sector, research institutions and other developing countries. When many African countries have shown limited commitment to supporting smallholder agriculture and when many neglected agricultural extension services in particular, the government of Ethiopia invested in both. However, shortages of food in the late 1960s shifted the attention of policy makers to agriculture and priority was given in the Third Five-Year Plan without modifications to the overall growth strategy. Against the backdrop of the global impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change, the Government of Ethiopia and IFAD have launched a new US$305.7 million programme to help the most vulnerable farmers increase their resilience. (DRM) policy, National Nutrition Strategy and Programme. 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